Ear infections are incredibly common and can cause a range of uncomfortable symptoms. From discharge to pressure in the ear, these pesky infections can make life difficult. Fortunately, treatment options are available to help address the condition. This article will discuss common symptoms of ear infections, the best treatment options, when to seek medical help, and how to take advantage of our online assessment. Read on to learn more!
What Is An Ear Infection?
An ear infection, medically referred to as acute otitis media, is an infection that affects the middle ear. It occurs when a blockage of the Eustachian tube - connecting the middle ear with the nasal-sinus cavity - prevents fluid from adequately draining and causes a buildup.
Acute otitis media is considered the most common ear infection and can affect all ages. It is particularly common among children as their Eustachian tubes are shorter and more horizontal than adults.
Middle ear infections can sometimes be mistaken for other conditions that impact the ear or side of the head, like swimmer's ear. While they generally have similar symptoms, this infection affects the outer ear canal and causes pain when pulling on the earlobe.
How Do You Get An Ear Infection?
The simple answer to the question of 'what causes an ear infection' is buildup behind the eardrum. The reasons for this buildup, though, can vary. Below is a breakdown of some of the most common factors behind the development of an ear infection.
Allergies represent the body's adverse immune response to an environmental trigger. They occur when otherwise-harmless substances are mistaken as a threat and addressed with the same process used to fight off colds, infections, and viruses.
The mucus buildup and inflammation created by allergic responses can cause a blockage of the Eustachian tube, leading to fluid buildup and, ultimately, an ear infection. Allergies don't always cause ear infections, nor do they develop every time someone has an allergic reaction, but the two are linked in terms of risk.
In some cases, ear infections can occur due to respiratory infections, such as the flu or a common cold. This is because the same viruses and bacteria that can cause an infection in one part of the body can be carried to other regions through mucus.
If someone has a cold and their Eustachian tubes are blocked by excess mucus, it could lead to an ear infection. The same is true for other respiratory infections, including bronchitis and pneumonia.
The shape of the Eustachian tubes can be a factor in the development of an ear infection, particularly in children. Children typically have shorter, more horizontal tubes that can more easily become blocked than adults.
In addition, some people are born with narrow or curved Eustachian tubes. This can make them more prone to blockage and infection.
Other Risk Factors
Aside from factors that have a direct hand in causing ear infections, there are several secondary influences that can increase someone's risk of developing one. Here are four of the most well-known:
Several studies have linked smoking cigarettes to an increased ear infection risk. The belief is that some of the negative side effects of smoking, such as inflammation and a weakened immune system, can impact the Eustachian tubes and make it easier for infections to develop.
Poor Hygiene Habits
Poor hygiene practices, such as not washing hands regularly and failing to remove water from the ears after swimming, can increase someone's risk of developing an ear infection. This is because it can leave the inner ear more vulnerable to bacteria or viruses that can cause infection.
Certain Immune Deficiencies
In some cases, ear infections can be linked to deficiencies in the immune system. This may include conditions like juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), which interferes with the body's ability to fight off infections, or certain types of chemotherapy, which can weaken the immune system and make it easier for bacteria and viruses to settle in the Eustachian tubes.
Individuals with Down syndrome share a facial structure that can make them more likely to develop otolaryngologic - or ear, nose, and throat (ENT) - problems. This includes blockage of the Eustachian tubes, which can lead to an ear infection.
Hearing abnormalities are common among those living with HIV/AIDS and can develop for various reasons. Ear infections, in particular, are often linked to a weakened immune system brought on by the virus.
Are Ear Infections Contagious?
Ear infections themselves are not contagious. They are caused by environmental triggers, like allergens or viruses, and not by direct contact with someone infected. This means you cannot catch an ear infection from someone else, nor do you have to worry about passing one on.
However, the viruses and bacteria that can lead to an ear infection may be contagious. This means that coming into contact with someone with a cold or flu, for example, could increase your risk of developing an ear infection.
If a non-pathogenic cause like allergies triggered your ear infection, then it's not contagious in any way. The symptoms you're experiencing have developed as a result of your body's immune response, not because of contact with someone else's illness. Regardless, it's important to address ear infections as soon as they become apparent, as delaying treatment can make them last longer and become more painful.
Types of Ear Infections
While they all affect the same general area, ear infections can be divided into several different types. A doctor will assess the specific characteristics of a case and break it down with the following factors in mind.
Ear infections can be divided into two main categories: acute and chronic. Acute ear infections develop suddenly and typically last for a few days or weeks, while chronic ear infections persist and recur over a long period. The latter are more severe and require longer courses of treatment.
The medical field classifies infections based on location, such as the middle, outer, and inner ear. The following is a brief review of each type, along with the characteristics they're associated with.
- Outer Ear Infections (Otitis Externa): Outer ear infections, also known as swimmer's ear, are caused by bacteria or fungus and usually occur when water remains in the ear after swimming or bathing. Symptoms of outer ear infections include pain, itching, redness, swelling, and drainage from the ear. These infections can usually be treated with antibiotics or antifungal medications.
- Middle Ear Infections (Otitis Media): Middle ear infections are the most common type of ear infection in children and adults. These infections affect the area between the eardrum and inner ear, usually as a result of a virus or bacteria. Symptoms include ear pain, fever, and fluid drainage from the ear. Middle ear infections often improve on their own within a few days but may require antibiotics if the infection is more severe.
- Inner Ear Infections (Labyrinthitis): Inner ear infections, also known as labyrinthitis, are caused by a virus or bacterial infection and affect either the fluid-filled sacs in the inner ear or the nerve pathways that connect the ear to the brain. Symptoms typically include vertigo, vomiting, fever, hearing impairment, and ringing in the ears.
Type of Infection
The nature of the specific pathogen causing an infection also affects its classification. Ear infections can be bacterial, viral, or caused by fungi. Bacterial ear infections are usually treated with antibiotics, while viral and fungal ear infections are typically treated with antiviral or antifungal medications.
Common Ear Infection Symptoms
It's important to note that not all ear infections present the same symptoms - the specific ones you experience can vary depending on your type of infection, its severity, and its cause. With that being said, there are some general signs and symptoms to look out for.
The most common ones include the following:
The most obvious symptom of an ear infection is difficulty in hearing. This might include partial or total deafness, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), or a feeling of pressure in the ear.
Pain and Discomfort
Ear infections can be quite painful, and this can manifest in several different ways. A person may experience a sharp or throbbing ache in the ear, as well as dizziness, nausea, and vomiting.
Discharge from the Ear
Sometimes an ear infection can lead to discharge from the ear. This may include a yellow or green liquid or pus-like materials. In ear infections caused by bacteria, it can also produce an odor.
Pressure in the Ear
Another common symptom of an ear infection is a feeling of pressure in the affected ear. This can be due to the blockage caused by fluid or pus in the Eustachian tubes.
Treatment options for an ear infection vary depending on a case's type, severity, and cause. In most cases, the infection will go away on its own, but in others, more aggressive treatment may be required.
When met with the symptoms of an ear infection, an easy first step can be trying some home remedies. These inexpensive remedies can sometimes help relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and remove fluid buildup.
- Hot compress: Using a hot compress on the affected ear can help reduce pain and encourage drainage.
- Saltwater: Creating a saltwater solution to irrigate the ear can help flush out bacteria and reduce inflammation.
- Garlic oil: Garlic is known for its antimicrobial properties, which can help ease pain and reduce swelling.
In some cases, medications may be prescribed to help treat ear infections. Antibiotics are the most common medication used to treat bacterial ear infections, while antiviral and antifungal medications may be prescribed for viral and fungal infections. Pain relievers such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen may also be recommended to help reduce pain and discomfort.
When to See a Doctor
Many ear infections can be treated with simple home remedies and will go away on their own within a few days. However, if symptoms don't improve after two or three days or worsen, it's essential to seek medical help. A doctor will be able to diagnose the condition accurately and determine the best course of treatment.
Aside from the infection itself, it's also worth considering whether the reason for your ear infection warrants a trip to the doctor. Those with a cold or respiratory virus and people with allergies or a weakened immune system should address their underlying condition to prevent future infections.
See a doctor for proper diagnosis and treatment if you believe your ear infection has occurred due to allergies. Allergies can cause the same symptoms as an ear infection, including pain, hearing difficulty, and discharge. Allergy medications may be recommended to help treat the condition and reduce symptoms.
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Frequently Asked Questions
How Long Are Ear Infections Contagious?
Ear infections are not contagious and cannot spread from person to person. However, the viruses or bacteria that cause ear infections can be spread through contact with someone who has the infection. Practice good hygiene, such as regular hand washing, to prevent the spread of these germs.
How Do You Catch Ear Infections?
Ear infections are often caused by a buildup of bacteria or viruses in the ear canal. This can happen when the Eustachian tubes become blocked due to mucus or fluid buildup, allergies, or a cold. Ear infections can also be caused by swimming in contaminated water and putting objects like cotton swabs in the ear.
Is An Ear Infection Contagious While On Antibiotics?
Ear infections themselves are not contagious. However, the underlying virus or bacteria responsible for causing one will remain contagious until it has been completely treated. It's important to treat the underlying infection and practice good hygiene to prevent the spread of germs.
Are Ear Infections Contagious After Antibiotics?
Once the infection has been treated with antibiotics, it is no longer contagious. It's important to finish all of your medication as prescribed by your doctor to ensure the infection has been fully treated.
Are Ear Infections Caused By Allergies Contagious?
No, ear infections caused by allergies are not contagious. Allergies can lead to inflammation and swelling, which can block the Eustachian tube and cause fluid buildup, leading to an ear infection. Allergy medications can help reduce inflammation and treat the condition.
Should I Stay Home With an Ear Infection?
If you feel unwell due to an ear infection, staying home and resting until the infection has been treated is best. This will not only help you to recover more quickly, but it can also reduce the risk of spreading any underlying virus or bacteria.